Ganoderma lucidum is a popular herbal medicine used in China to promote health. Modern reports have disclosed the active ingredients of Ganoderma can exhibit a number of effects, including antitumor effects and immunomodulation. The present study evaluated the antitumor effects of self-prepared ganoderma lucidum spore oil and spores oil, and investigated the possible underlying mechanisms by observing the consequences of the extracts and oil on topoisomerases and the cell cycle. The final results showed that Ganoderma extracts and spores oil presented dose-dependent inhibitory effects on tumor cells.
Ganoderma lucidum, also referred to as Ganoderma or Lingzhi, is among most frequently used fungi in Chinese medicine. Modern pharmacological and scientific studies have confirmed that Ganoderma contains abundant biologically active substances in their fruiting body, mycelia and spores, and possesses variable functions, including immunomodulation, anti-aging, reducing blood lipids, anti-viral and anti-tumor activities (1-6). The current study examined the antitumor activity of a mixture of aqueous and ethanol extracts of the Ganoderma fruiting body and Ganoderma spores oil, which was taken from broken spores by supercritical CO2 extraction technology and explored the possible underlying mechanisms. DNA topoisomerases are a class of enzymes active in the regulating DNA supercoiling.
Topoisomerase overexpression has been associated with numerous human malignancies and is also the objective for numerous chemotherapeutic agents (7). In the event that topoisomerases are blocked, the cell encounters problems during transcription in the DNA and through cell division. The widely-used antitumor drug, campothecin, blocks the relaxing action of class I topoisomerases and induces significant G1 cell cycle arrest (8). A previous study established that the active elements of Ganoderma exhibited inhibition of topoisomerases (9). The current study examined whether Ganoderma extracts and spore oil affected the cell cycle and topoisomerases I and II.
Preparations of Ganoderma extracts and spores oil – Ganoderma extracts (GanoHerb™) and Ganoderma spores oil were offered by Fujian Xianzhilou Biological Technology and science Co., Ltd. (Fuzhou, China). Ganoderma extract, a brown powder, was dissolved in double distilled water to make solutions of various concentrations, that were brown suspensions. Ganoderma spores oil had been a soft capsule with .5 g/.5 ml golden oil in each capsule. The stock solution of Agaricus Blazei Extract were prepared using double distilled water that contained 6 µl/ml (v/v) Tween 80.
Recently, the impact of Ganoderma on tumors has been increasingly studied. The current study stated that Ganoderma extracts and spores oil inhibited the expansion of human leukemia cells (K562 and HL60) and human gastric carcinoma cells (SGC-7901) in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, Ganoderma extracts and spores significantly suppressed the expansion of the S180 and H22 transplant tumors in mice. Therefore, Ganoderma extracts and spores oil demonstrated definite antitumor effects inside the in vitro vrlzqn in vivo studies.
Since olden days, Ganoderma continues to be popular as a popular herbal medicine for your promotion of health (11). Numerous previous studies examined the immunomodulatory activities of Ganoderma (12,13). By detecting the immunity indexes of mice bearing S180 or H22 cells, Ganoderma extracts were concluded to possess a certain influence on improving immune function, while Ganoderma spores oil had no significant effect on the spleen or thymus indexes of mice. One of the primary elements of Ganoderma extract is actually a polysaccharide that has been reported as immune function enhancer (12-15). As there were few polysaccharides (water-soluble substances) within the Ganoderma spores oil, the spores oil exhibited no evident effect on immunity. The current study also indicated that the antitumor effects of Ganoderma might be safer in contrast to 5-FU, which resulted in the decreased weight and immunity indexes of mice (Tables I and ?andIIII).
To research the possible mechanism of Agaricus Blazei Extract, the effects of extracts and spores oil on topoisomerases and the effect of spores oil on the cell cycle were examined.
DNA topoisomerases are a class of enzymes involved in the regulating DNA supercoiling. Type I topoisomerases change the level of supercoiling of DNA by causing single-strand breaks and religation, whereas type II topoisomerases cause double-strand breaks. Both of these activities are particularly crucial during DNA transcription and replication, once the DNA helix must be unwound to allow proper purpose of large enzymatic machinery. Cancer chemotherapy takes advantage of this finding, using drugs that block topoisomerases to kill rapidly-dividing cancer cells. For instance, the widely-used anthracycline drugs, like doxorubicin and daunorubicin, attack class II topoisomerases and also the plant toxin, campothecin, blocks the relaxing action of class I topoisomerases.